I would like to reduce the font size of my bibliography. I tried using the command suggested in the first answer here How to change font size for bibliography? It appears to be intended for documents with a separate bibliography file, which I do not have.
Does anyone have any suggestions as to how I can reduce the font size with thebibliography? Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Reducing bibliography font size Ask Question. Asked 8 years, 11 months ago.
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Viewed 14k times. Active Oldest Votes. Thanks, this worked. Is there any way to reduce the spacing between bib items? How to reduce the size of the word References?
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Revised on December 8, The Chicago Manual of Style contains comprehensive guidelines about such issues as text formatting, citations, and quotation. Turabian is a version of Chicago style aimed at students and researchers, with specific guidelines for formatting papers and essays. The information in this article applies to both Chicago and Turabian style.
Note that any specific formatting advice from your instructor or faculty overrules these guidelines. Template documents set up in Chicago style are available to download below. Author-date Notes and bibliography. Table of contents General formatting Title page Headings Block quotes Numbers and acronyms In-text citations and notes Bibliography or reference list Frequently asked questions about Chicago format.
Times New Roman. Use margins of at least 1 inch on all sides of the page. Page numbers can be placed either in the top right or the bottom center of the page — one or the other, not both. All text on the title page should be center-aligned and double-spaced, and written in the same font as the rest of your text.
If you have a subtitle, the main title ends with a colon and the subtitle appears on the following line, also in bold and the same size as the main title. Each new piece of information appears on a new line. The title page should not have a page number, but should be included in the page count — in other words, the page numbering starts on page 2.
Headings should use headline capitalization:. If you use different levels of heading e. All headings of one level should be presented the same way, and higher-level headings should stand out more from the text.
For example, you might use a larger font for chapter headings, bold for section headings, and italics for subheadings:. Prose quotations of five or more lines or more than wordsas well as poetry quotations of two or more lines, are presented as block quotes.
Block quotes do not use quotation marks. Unlike the rest of the text, they are not double-spaced. Chicago recommends using words, not numerals, for numbers lower than Acronyms should be introduced the first time you refer to the thing they stand for:. Neither numerals nor acronyms should be used at the beginning of a sentence. Either rewrite the sentence so that the numeral or acronym appears elsewhere, or write out the full phrase or number:.Unclos article vs gauge
Chicago provides guidelines for not one but two citation styles : author-date and notes and bibliography. In author-date stylecitations are placed directly in the text in parentheses. In this style, you have some flexibility about how exactly to integrate the citation:. In notes and bibliography stylecitations appear in footnotes or endnotes the format is identical either wayand the reader is referred to them by superscript numbers in the text.
Footnote and endnote numbers appear at the end of the relevant clause or sentence, after any punctuation except a dash. Endnotes appear on their own page just before the bibliography ; footnotes appear at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be separated from the text by a short rule and be presented in the same font size as the main text, or smaller. Bibliographies and reference lists are not double-spaced, but leave a blank line between entries.
If you have to create a Chicago style annotated bibliographyfollow the same format as a normal bibliography, but indent and double-space the annotations under each source reference. Frequently asked questions about Chicago format What is Turabian style?
Turabian style is a version of Chicago style designed specifically for students and researchers. It follows most Chicago conventions, but also adds extra guidelines for formatting research paperstheses and dissertations. Turabian, now in its ninth edition.You need to type each reference only once, and your citations and reference list are automatically formatted consistently, in a style of your choosing. BibTeX references are stored in a plain text database with a simple format. You put a command in your LaTeX file specifying the style in which you want the references to appear in the bibliography of the document and another command specifying the location of your reference database.
You then process the LaTeX file with latex or pdflatex which creates, among other things, a list of the labels of the items you citethen with bibtex which reads the list of labels, finds the items in your database, and writes a bibliography for your documentand finally with latex again which incorporates the bibliography into your document.
However you create it, the file will look something like the following example. Hover over orange text to see explanations. For each item type, the required fields are highlighted. Many types are available. The most commonly-used are probably articlebookincollection for a chapter in an edited volumeinproceedings for an article in conference proceedingstechreport for a report, like a "Working paper" or "Technical report", issued by an institutionand unpublished.
It can be any string. Note that "and" appears between every pair of authors. Of course, when the reference is formatted in your paper, only the "ands" specified by the bibliography style you choose will appear.
It's not exactly the case that BibTeX takes the string following the last space to be the last name. If that string is preceded by a string or strings that start with lowercase letters, those strings as well as the final string are treated as the last name.How to write an email to a client
If the bibliography style you use puts titles in quotation marks, it will do it for you. Either way, when BibTeX formats your reference it will insert an en-dash between the pages, if that is what your bibliography style specifies which it should. Aliprantis and Kim C. Your bib file can contain references you don't cite. BibTeX will put in the list of references at the end of your paper only the ones that you cite unless you explicitly tell it otherwise. Choose a style for your citations and bibliography You need to decide how you want citations to appear in your document and how you want the references formatted in the bibliography.
If that's what you want, and you are satisfied with the format of the bibliography that those styles produce, you're done. If you want your citations to take the form "see Arrow and Hahn ", or you want to tinker with the format of the items in the bibliography, then you need to either find or create a suitable BibTeX style file. If you search for "bibtex style files" on the web, you'll find pages that list style files and show you the output they produce.
However, none of these pages makes it easy to choose a style. The styles mentioned in the next section might work for you; or you can create your own see the final section. Create a LaTeX file with references to your bibliography database Your LaTeX file needs to include a reference to a label in your BibTeX file whenever you want to cite an item in the file a reference to the bibliography style file you want to use, which determines how the references you cite are formatted in the bibliography of your document and possibly a LaTeX style file associated with the bibliography style a LaTeX command to generate the bibliography at the point in your document where you want it to appear.
Example using te. This file is available on this page which has instructions on where to put the file once you get it. The lines related to BibTeX are highlighed. It requires the LaTeX style file natbib. You probably have this file already assuming you have some implementation of TeX on your computer. If you don't, you can get it on this CTAN page. Duncombe Rae for pointing out this simple way of generating a possessive citation.
The list of references will look like this: Aliprantis, Charalambos D. BorderInfinite Dimensional Analysis. Springer, Berlin.When it comes to bibliography management packages, there are three main options in L a T e X : bibtex, natbib a package for use with bibtex and biblatex. Biblatex is a modern program to process bibliography information, provides an easier and more flexible interface and a better language localization that the other two options. This article explains how to use biblatex to manage and format the bibliography in a L a T e X document.
Overleaf provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliographies. See this link. Open an example of the biblatex package in Overleaf. Some extra options, inside brackets and comma-separated, are added when importing biblatex :.
This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:.Introduction to mathematical programming homework solutions
Not all the information in the. Biblatex allows high customization of the bibliography section with little effort. It was mentioned that several citation styles and bibliography styles are available, and you can also create new ones.
Another customization option is to change the default title of the bibliography section. The bibliography can also be subdivided into sections based on different filters, for instance: print only references from the same author, the same journal or similar title. Below an example. Here, the bibliography is divided in 4 sections. The syntax of the commands used here is explained below:. No Search Results. Bibliography management in LaTeX. Let's cite!In BibTeX there is no bibliography record type for website references.How to use Any Font Size in LaTeX (LaTeX Advanced Tutorial-12)
Note that, like all bibliography references, quite a few compilations must be made for the document references to be displayed properly. For example, to compile the urlbib file above, we would need to run the following:.
Converting this into a pdf via dvipdf urlbib. Hi, good work so far. Luckily, the Misc bibliography record type has a howpublished attribute, which may … […].
Name required. Mail will not be published required. Below is an example of a document named urlbib which demonstrates this. File: urlbib. For example, to compile the urlbib file above, we would need to run the following: latex urlbib bibtex urlbib latex urlbib latex urlbib Converting this into a pdf via dvipdf urlbib. Required Name says:. April 15, at pm. Sujatha says:. September 5, at pm.
July 21, at pm. December 25, at pm. Click here to cancel reply. Social Connections. Chris: Very Helpful. Thanks chirag: when i use the above. All Rights Reserved. Powered by WordPress.Using a different font size on a global level will affect all normal-sized text as well as the size of headings, footnotes, etc.
By changing the font size locally, however, a single word, a few lines of text, a large table or a heading throughout the document may be modified. The standard classes, article, report and book support 3 different font sizes, 10pt, 11pt, 12pt by default 10pt. The font size is set through the optional argument, e. Should you require a different font size for your document, use the extsizes package. It allows for the following font sizes: 8pt, 9pt, 10pt, 11pt, 12pt, 14pt, 17pt, 20pt.
The KOMA-script and memoir classes are more flexible when it comes to font sizes. Please see the documentation for more details. A table of the exact font sizes in points can be found on wikibooks.
When using another font type, such as the Adobe Times Roman equivalent available in the PSNFSS package see example belowhowever, you can benefit from that font size. Note: The figure is scaled and therefore does not show the actual font size.
It illustrates the difference between the font sizes. Here is alternative, more flexible approach. The baseline-skip should be set to roughly 1.
using bibtex: a short guide
Again, this only works with a non-standard font type. And again, it does not show the actual font size. Try it with LaTeX! Source with more details: here and there. August at Very interesting post, but I think you are missing something: Every once in a while if you change font sizes, the line height is not adjusted — resulting in large space between two lines. Maybe you could comment on that as well in this post? It would fit nicely…. Hi Rob. Would you be able to provide a minimal working example of the issue you describe above?
Thanks, Tom. September at Cool, thanks Rob! Will change it in the post. Best, Tom. Humberto Munoz. I found the answers to a similar question on SX pretty good.Fortunately, LaTeX has a variety of features that make dealing with references much simpler, including built-in support for citing references. However, a much more powerful and flexible solution is achieved thanks to an auxiliary tool called BibTeX which comes bundled as standard with LaTeX.
BibTeX provides for the storage of all references in an external, flat-file database. BibLaTeX uses this same syntax. This database can be referenced in any LaTeX document, and citations made to any record that is contained within the file. This is often more convenient than embedding them at the end of every document written; a centralized bibliography source can be linked to as many documents as desired write once, read many!
Of course, bibliographies can be split over as many files as one wishes, so there can be a file containing sources concerning topic A a. When writing about topic AB, both of these files can be linked into the document perhaps in addition to sources ab. If you are writing only one or two documents and aren't planning on writing more on the same subject for a long time, you might not want to waste time creating a database of references you are never going to use.
In this case you should consider using the basic and simple bibliography support that is embedded within LaTeX. Here is a practical example:. OK, so what is going on here? The first thing to notice is the establishment of the environment. The mandatory argument, which I supplied after the begin statement, is telling LaTeX how wide the item label will be when printed. Note however, that the number itself is not the parameter, but the number of digits is.
Therefore, I am effectively telling LaTeX that I will only need reference labels of one character in length, which ultimately means no more than nine references in total. If you want more than nine, then input any two-digit number, such as '56', which allows up to 99 references. Next is the actual reference entry itself.
I often use the surname of the first author, followed by the last two digits of the year hence lamport If that author has produced more than one reference for a given year, then I add letters after, 'a', 'b', etc. But, you should do whatever works for you. Everything after the key is the reference itself.Dissertation help ireland election commission
You need to type it as you want it to be presented. I have put the different parts of the reference, such as author, title, etc. These linebreaks are ignored by LaTeX.
To actually cite a given document is very easy. When LaTeX processes the document, the citation will be cross-referenced with the bibitems and replaced with the appropriate number citation. The advantage here, once again, is that LaTeX looks after the numbering for you.
If it were totally manual, then adding or removing a reference would be a real chore, as you would have to re-number all the citations by hand. The argument, "p. Note the tilde in [p. This non-breakable inter-word space is inserted because the end-of-sentence spacing would be too wide, and "p.
The citations are then separated by commas. Here's an example:. The result will then be shown as citations inside the same brackets, depending on the citation style. There are several different ways to format lists of bibliographic references and the citations to them in the text. These are called citation stylesand consist of two parts: the format of the abbreviated citation i.
Abbreviated citations can be of two main types: numbered or textual. Numbered citations also known as the Vancouver referencing system are numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and consist in Arabic numerals in parentheses 1square brackets superscript 1or a combination thereof . Textual citations also known as the Harvard referencing system use the author surname and usually the year as the abbreviated form of the citation, which is normally fully Smith or partially enclosed in parenthesis, as in Smith
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